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Research into Prehistoric Ethnogenetic Processes in East Europe
by Valentyn Stetsiuk
The first book of the whole work is comprised of two parts. The research methods are described in the first part, and the results are given in the second part. The research is based upon a historic-comparative analysis of vocabulary of diverse language families. The final results are correlated with archeological facts.
The research was carried out by the application of a method which was worked out by the author and was called the „grafic-analytical method". The main principles are briefly explained by the example of the Slavic languages in the article (1). The method evoked some interest among linguists but generated diverse opinions. Specifically a critical article was published in the Moscow leading linguistic newspaper (2).
An expanded description of the method and concept postulates on which it is based are given in the offered work. An essence of the method consists of the construction of a grafical model (scheme) of near-related languages interrelation. This model is constructed on a postulate of the reverse-proportional dependence („oberneno proporcijna zalezhnist'", in Ukrainian) between quantity of common words in pairs of related languages and that distance on which areas of formation this languages from common ancestor language were found in that previous time. A count of the quantity of common words in language pairs has been done on the basis of an „isogloss" table-dictionary which had been created for each researched language family.
The table-dictionaries follow this structure: words of the same language are placed in vertical columns; the words which relate to the same isogloss are found in horizontal lines. It is important to take into consideration that not all isoglosses have a corresponding match in all languages. Many isoglosses have the appropriate words in some languages only. If all the languages have the appropriate words for the same isogloss (all square are full), then this isogloss belongs to a common lexical stock of the language family. The common lexical stock has not been taken into the calculation, because it concerns a chronology mainly to the time of existence of the common ancestor language from which these languages were developed.
All words belonging to the same isogloss, approximate each other in content (substance) and have phonetic accordance in sound composition.
The construction of the model of the language relationship is done after the calculation of the common words quantity in language pairs. The model looks as a graf, which has as so much knots how much of languages we have. Indeed each knot is an area of points, each of them is an end of a segment of which length is corresponded to a quantity of common words in language pairs. These segmets connect pairs of all areas. The construction of the model goes in some approximation.
When the model construction is ready, one looks for a place on a geographical map for it. The form of the model could not be broken therefore it is not easy to find the suitable place on the map. One has to find a such area configuration, which corresponds to the our model. Each area of language formation must have distinct borders, which hinder linguistic contacts between inhabitants of these areas and so help to form separate laguages from the previos common language. The borders of the areas can be rivers, mountchains, swamps.
Near 70 languages from 7 language families or language groups (Nostratic, Indo-european, Finn-Ugric, Turkish, Iranian, Germanic and Slavic) were researched by the author with this method. The table-dictionaries for each language family or language group were created on ground of etymological and two-language dictioraries. One-two thousands of words were taken from each language for these tables, the quantity of common words in language pairs has been calculated upon them and 7 language-models have been created later.
How it shows as the result of the researches, all the researched languages form a family tree with some levels of sinchronical branching.
At least 6 Nostratic languages developed from the previos common language on the lowest level (old Indo-european, Altaic, Uralic, Semitic-Chamitic, Kartvelic and Dravidic). The place for their formation has been founded in Fore Asia (6 areas near the lakes Van, Sevan and Urmija as well near the mountains Ararat, Aragac, the rivers Kura, Araks, Choroh, Great Zab, Little Zab etc). The borders between the areas are mountchains. This natural borders separate six states now - Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Irak and Iran. Some other facts from researches of diverse scientifists to support of this chois have been added in the work.
Three groups of the old Nostratic tribes migrated to East Europe later (7 thou. years ago). Their late languages as a part of the three previos great language families have been researched on the level two. The grafical models of them help us to find the areas of the settlement of the Indoeuropean, Finnic-Ugric und Turkish peoples in the East Europe between Volga-, Dniepr- and Visla-river. The modern Indoeuropean; Finnic-Ugric und Turkish begann to form here in areas between numerous tributaries of great river Volga, Don, Dnieper, Vistula in III-rd mill. B. C. The old Indoeuropean languages had been formed from the common language in the Dniepr-basin - Greec, Italic, Armenian, Celtic, Thrakish, Frigish, Illirian, Germanic, Slavic, Baltic, Tocharian, Indian, Iranian, Chettish. The old Finnic-Ugric languages begann to form in areas between Volga and Don. The old Turkish languages begann to form in areas between Dnieper and Don.
The separate Iranian, Germanic, Slavic languages were researched on the level three. The areas of their formation were founded in Dnieper- and Don-basin too. The Indoeuropean peoples of these languages lived here after the other Indoeuropean peaples migrated to West and South Europe and to Asia back.
Much other linguistic and archeological facts can confirm this arrangement as the result of the researches and are added in the work. The first book end on the chronological level I-st mill. B. C. The later development of the ethnogenetic processes will been given in the second book.
The work is written in Ukranian, has 100 pages (7,6 print sheets), 6 maps, 12 pictures, 11 tables, 12 pages of quoted publications.
1. Stetsiuk V.M. Opredielenie mest poselenij drevnich slavian grafoanaliticheskim metodom. - Izvestia AN SSSR. Serija literatury i jazyka. 1987. Nr 1. Moscow. (In Russian).
2. Juravlev V. F. K probleme rasselenia drevnich slavian: o tak nazyvajemom „grafoanaliticheskom metode". - Voprosy jazykoznanija. 1991. Nr2. Moscow. (In Russian).
About the method
The applied models of related languages are a modification of a special graf. The peculiarity of this graf is that all its knots without exeption are connected between themselves with ribs and these ribs have fixed, certain length. This graf can be applied at description of spatial associations of objects with common features which quantities between object pairs are depended from the distance between these object pairs. Specially it can be used in linguistic, archeology, biology etc, also where objects have enough common features.
The tables-dictionaries being input into computer can help us to separate not etymologized words in diverse languages , to unit them in groups and to reconstruct „dead languages" with the aid of these words.
There are very many Indian languages in America. One can determine their relationship and locate their old native lands with using the grafic-analytical method. Also, one can reconstruct in this way the process of settling of America .